Milingimbi is part of the Crocodile Islands group located off the coast of Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory. The island, which is the largest in the group, is about 440 kilometres east of Darwin. The Crocodile Islands belong to the Yolngu people, an indigenous Australian people. Milingimbi has been occupied by Aboriginal people for more than 40,000 years.
The Methodist Overseas Mission established a settlement on the island in 1923. During World War II, the island was bombed by the Japanese and most of the inhabitants moved to Elcho Island. It was also used as a Royal Australian Air Force Base, until the missionaries came back in 1951. Milingimbi became part of the East Arnhem Shire Council in 2008.